By devilish policy art thou grown great, And, like ambitious Sylla, overgorg'd With gobbets of thy mother's bleeding heart.
In February 1991, I attended the CPSR Public Policy Roundtable, in Washington, DC.
The animosity between the inhabitants of English and Danish race had, from these repeated injuries, risen to a great height, when Ethelred (1002), from a policy incident to weak princes, embraced the cruel resolution of massacring the latter throughout all his dominions.
Thus Insurance Companies, while they take heavy risks off the shoulders of policy-holders, incur relatively trifling risks themselves; they can predict the aggregate sums which they will be called upon to pay within a small margin of error.
The lives of a hundred thousand persons are computed to have been sacrificed to this stroke of barbarous policy u, which, by seeking a remedy for a temporary evil, thus inflicted a lasting wound on the power and populousness of the nation.
The best of rules being liable to misconstruction, some Congressmen have acted as if this rule read, "Always have a policy shop."
DEPUTY FIRST SEA LORD General policy questions and operations outside Home Waters.
The wars which such a policy provoked were purely continental wars, and always rested on the capital situated in the middle of the peninsula as the ultimate basis of operations, and proximately on the chain of Roman fortresses.
On matters of home policy Lord Palmerston remained the Tory he had been in his earlier days, and this was the cause of many a trial to John.
Illiberality, jealousy, and local policy mix too much in all our public councils for good government of the union.
The official statements of the English statesmen have, in spite of all pacific assurances, shown clearly that the paths of English policy lead in the direction which I have indicated.
(But one should not get misled into thinking that those working under Rajan always had clear policy guidelines to work under.
As a result the policy function of the Board and the management function are closely linked together as they must be in a business that is to be permanent.
Similarly a reliable and honourable policy forms an element of strength in dealings with allies as well as with foes.
That they did not after victory exhibit the moderation which they ought to have done in the interest more especially of Italy itself; that the retention of Spain, for instance, the undertaking of the guardianship of Africa, and above all the half-fanciful scheme of bringing liberty everywhere to the Greeks, were in the light of Italian policy grave errors, is sufficiently clear.
October, 1911 CONTENTS PREFACE INTRODUCTION Power of the peace idea--Causes of the love of peace in Germany-- German consciousness of strength--Lack of definite political aims --Perilous situation of Germany and the conditions of successful self-assertion--Need to test the authority of the peace idea, and to explain the tasks and aims of Germany in the light of history CHAPTER I THE RIGHT TO MAKE WAR Pacific ideals and arbitration--The biological necessity of war--The duty of self-assertion--The right of conquest--The struggle for employment--War a moral obligation--Beneficent results of war --War from the Christian and from the materialist standpoints-- Arbitration and international law--Destructiveness and immorality of peace aspirations--Real and Utopian humanity--Dangerous results of peace aspirations in Germany--The duty of the State CHAPTER II THE DUTY TO MAKE WAR Bismarck and the justification of war--The duty to fight--The teaching of history--War only justifiable on adequate grounds--The foundations of political morality--Political and individual morality --The grounds for making war--The decision to make war--The responsibility of the statesman CHAPTER III A BRIEF SURVEY OF GERMANY'S HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT The ways of Providence in history--Christianity and the Germans-- The Empire and the Papacy--Breach between the German World Empire and the revived spiritual power--Rise of the great States of Europe and political downfall of Germany after the Thirty Years' War--Rise of the Prussian State--The epoch of the Revolution and the War of Liberation--Intellectual supremacy of Germany--After the War of Liberation--Germany under William I. and Bismarck--Change in the conception of the State and the principle of nationality--New economic developments and the World Power of England--Rise of other World Powers-- Socialism, and how to overcome it--German science and art-- Internal disintegration of Germany and her latent strength CHAPTER IV GERMANY'S HISTORICAL MISSION Grounds of the intellectual supremacy of Germany--Germany's role as spiritual and intellectual leader--Conquest of religious and social obstacles--Inadequacy of our present political position-- To secure what we have won our first duty--Necessity of increasing our political power--Necessity of colonial expansion-- Menace to our aspirations from hostile Powers CHAPTER V WORLD POWER OR DOWNFALL Points of view for judging of the political situation--The States of the Triple Alliance--The political interests of France and Russia-- The Russo-French Alliance--The policy of Great Britain-- America and the rising World Powers of the Far East--The importance of Turkey--Spain and the minor States of Europe--Perilous position of Germany--World power or downfall--Increase of political power: how to obtain it--German colonial policy--The principle of the balance of power in Europe--Neutral States--The principle of non-intervention in the internal affairs of other States--Germany and the rules of international politics --The foundations of our internal strength CHAPTER VI THE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF ARMY FOR WAR Its necessity--Its twofold aspect--The educational importance of military efficiency--Different military systems--Change in the nature of military efficiency due to the advance of civilization-- Variety of methods of preparation for war--The armaments of minor States--The armaments of the Great Powers--Harmonious development of all elements of strength--Influence on armaments of different conceptions of the duties of the State--Permanent factors to be kept in sight in relation to military preparedness-- Statecraft in this connection CHAPTER VII THE CHARACTER OF OUR NEXT WAR Our opponents--The French army--The military power of Russia-- The land forces of England--The military power of Germany and Austria; of Italy--The Turkish army--The smaller Balkan States --The Roumanian army--The armies of the lesser States of Central Europe--Greece and Spain--The fleets of the principal naval Powers--The enmity of France--The hostility of England-- Russia's probable behaviour in a war against Germany--The military situation of Germany--Her isolation--What will be at stake in our next war--Preparation for war CHAPTER VIII THE NEXT NAVAL WAR England's preparations for a naval war against Germany--Germany's first measures against England--England and the neutrality of the small neighbouring States--The importance of Denmark--Commercial mobilization--The two kinds of blockade: The close blockade and the extended blockade--England's attack on our coasts--Co-operation of the air-fleet in their defence--The decisive battle and its importance--Participation of France and Russia in a German-English war CHAPTER IX THE CRUCIAL QUESTION Reciprocal relations of land and sea power--The governing points of view in respect of war preparations--Carrying out of universal military service--The value of intellectual superiority--Masses, weapons, and transport in modern war--Tactical efficiency and the quality of the troops--The advantage of the offensive--Points to be kept in view in war preparations--Refutation of the prevailing restricted notions on this head--The Ersatzreserve--New formations--Employment of the troops of the line and the new formations--Strengthening of the standing army--The importance of personality CHAPTER X ARMY ORGANIZATION Not criticism wanted of what is now in existence, but its further development--Fighting power and tactical efficiency--Strength of the peace establishment--Number of officers and N.C.O.'s, especially in the infantry--Relations of the different arms to each other--Distribution of machine guns--Proportion between infantry and artillery--Lessons to be learned from recent wars with regard to this--Superiority at the decisive point--The strength of the artillery and tactical efficiency--Tactical efficiency of modern armies--Tactical efficiency and the marching depth of an army corps--Importance of the internal organization of tactical units--Organization and distribution of field artillery; of heavy field howitzers--Field pioneers and fortress pioneers--Tasks of the cavalry and the air-fleet--Increase of the cavalry and formation of cyclist troops--Tactical organization of the cavalry--Development of the air-fleet--Summary of the necessary requirements--Different ways of carrying them out--Importance of governing points of view for war preparations CHAPTER XI TRAINING AND EDUCATION The spirit of training--Self-dependence and the employment of masses-- Education in self-dependence--Defects in our training for war on the grand scale--Need of giving a new character to our manoeuvres and to the training of our commanders--Practical training of the artillery-- Training in tactical efficiency--Practice in marching under war conditions--Training of the train officers and column leaders-- Control of the General Staff by the higher commanders--Value of manoeuvres: how to arrange them--Preliminary theoretical training of the higher commanders--Training of the cavalry and the airmen; of the pioneers and commissariat troops--Promotion of intellectual development in the army--Training in the military academy CHAPTER XII PREPARATION FOR THE NAVAL WAR The position of a World Power implies naval strength--Development of German naval ideals--The task of the German fleet; its strength --Importance of coast defences--Necessity of accelerating our naval armaments--The building of the fleet--The institution of the air-fleet--Preliminary measures for a war on commerce-- Mobilization--General points of view with regard to preparations for the naval war--Lost opportunities in the past CHAPTER XIII THE ARMY AND POPULAR EDUCATION The universal importance of national education--Its value for the army--Hurtful influences at work on it--Duties of the State with regard to national health--Work and sport--The importance of the school--The inadequacy of our national schools--Military education and education in the national schools--Methods of instruction in the latter--Necessity for their reform--Continuation schools--Influence of national education on the Russo-Japanese War--Other means of national education--The propaganda of action CHAPTER XIV FINANCIAL AND POLITICAL PREPARATION FOR WAR Duties of the State in regard to war preparations--The State and national credit--The financial capacity of Germany--Necessity of new sources of revenue--The imperial right of inheritance--Policy of interests and alliances--Moulding and exploitation of the political situation--The laws of political conduct--Interaction of military and political war preparations--Political preparations for our next war--Governing factors in the conduct of German policy EPILOGUE The latest political events--Conduct of the German Imperial Government --The arrangement with France--Anglo-French relations and the attitude of England--The requirements of the situation GERMANY AND THE NEXT WAR INTRODUCTION The value of war for the political and moral development of mankind has been criticized by large sections of the modern civilized world in a way which threatens to weaken the defensive powers of States by undermining the warlike spirit of the people.
Shunning that, it seems to be reasonable and proper that the powers of Congress should be so construed as that the General Government in its intercourse with other nations and in our internal concerns should be able to adopt all such measures lying within the fair scope and intended to facilitate the direct objects of its powers as the public welfare may require and a sound and provident policy dictate.
Katharine is a good girl, a fine upstanding girl, but I suppose--" He paused, as if to regard and hear some invisible counsellor, and then briskly resumed: "Yes, I suppose policy demands that she should marry you.
Although the terrorist attacks on the United States can find their roots, at least partially, in a legacy of misguided American foreign and energy policy decisions, they have also increased our awareness of a great chasm between peoples with seemingly irreconcilable stories about the world and humankind's role within it.
Baggage-smashing, dog-smudging, ring-dropping, watch-stuffing, the patent-safe men, the confidence men, garroters, shysters, policy-dealers, mock-auction Peter Funks, bogus-ticket swindlers, are all terms which have more or less outgrown the bounds of their Alsatia of Thieves' Latin and are known of men.
Mr. Windham had hitherto felt a reluctance to speaking, not from the abstruseness, but from the simplicity, of the subject; but he could not longer be silent, when he observed those arguments of policy creeping again out of their lurking-places, which had fled before eloquence and truth.
I am well aware that this is a subject of so much delicacy, on account of the extended interests it involves, as to require that it should be touched with the utmost caution, and that while an abandonment of the policy in which it originated--a policy coeval with our Government, and pursued through successive Administrations--is neither to be expected or desired, the people have a right to demand, and have demanded, that it be so modified as to correct abuses and obviate injustice.
It has tried to come to an understanding with Japan in the Far East, and with England in Central Asia; in the Balkans its policy aims at the maintenance of the status quo.
This question of nationality offered a good deal of embarrassment in the long run, and the council foresaw future embarrassments as connected with the subject; but, every one of the colonists being of American birth, and America being then neutral, and all the American-built vessels having American papers, it was thought most prudent to let things take their natural course, under the existing arrangement, until something occurred to render a more decided policy advisable.