And that this low temperature of the deepest water is probably the universal rule for the depths of the open ocean is shown, among others, by Captain Chimmo's recent observations in the Indian ocean, between Ceylon and Sumatra, where, the surface water ranging from 85°-81° Fahr., the temperature at the bottom, at a depth of 2270 to 2656 fathoms, was only from 34° to 32° Fahr.
In Sumatra certain trees have special honours paid to them as being the embodiment of the spirits of the woods, and the Fijians believe that "if an animal or a plant die, its soul immediately goes to Bolotoo."
4. Marsden's "History of Sumatra," p. 301.
They told him what it meant, not the missionaries only, but the Chinese merchants who controlled the Cummings line for all the archipelago, and Sumatra planters, and British officials, and business men from Malaysian trade centers whose names he had never before heard.
] BLACK PEPPER.This well-known aromatic spice is the fruit of a species of climbing vine, and is a native of the East Indies, and is extensively cultivated in Malabar and the eastern islands of Borneo, Sumatra, and Java, and others in the same latitude.
Ceylon was thought to be its native island; but it has been found in Malabar, Cochin-China, Sumatra, and the Eastern Islands; also in the Brazils, the Mauritius, Jamaica, and other tropical localities.
WHATEVER DIFFERENCE IN ITS PHYSICAL NATURE, climate and soil may produce in this animal, his functional characteristics are the same in whatever part of the world he may be found; and whether in the trackless forests of South America, the coral isles of Polynesia, the jungles of India, or the spicy brakes of Sumatra, he is everywhere known for his gluttony, laziness, and indifference to the character and quality of his food.
Thought at first you meant the rattan-juice kind, from Sumatra." The gate of the town yawned black.
The last of our three anomalies, the white, or mountain goat (Oreamnos montanus), is not as completely orphaned as the other two, for it seems quite surely to be connected with a small and peculiar series consisting of the European chamois and several species of Nemorhaedus inhabiting eastern Asia and Sumatra.
Johnson says however (Works, ix. 84), that 'to the southern inhabitants of Scotland the state of the mountains and the islands is equally unknown with that of Borneo or Sumatra.'
Holland was at one time second to no country in the extent of its colonies; and it still owns Java, the Moluccas, part of Borneo, New Guinea, Sumatra and Celebes, in the East; and in the West, Dutch Guiana and Curacoa.
E. Marco obviously extends this sea and these islands to all those of the Chinese sea and the Indian ocean, from Sumatra in the SW. to Japan in the NE.E. SECTION XVIII.
Lambri is the fifth kingdom of Java-minor, or Sumatra, in which is great plenty of Brazil wood, some of the seeds of which I brought to Venice, but they would not vegetate, as the climate was too cold for them.
E.  If right in our former conjectures, the island spoken of in the text must be Sumatra not that now called Java.
Indeed, the mention immediately afterwards of the islands of Nocueran and Angaman 150 miles to the north, which can only he the Nicobar and Andaman islands, establish the identity of Java-minor, here called Java the less, and Sumatra.
From this kingdom or division of the island, it probably acquired the name of Sumatra, by which it is known in modern geography.
E. Simoltra or Sumatra.
It is impossible even to conjecture what island is here meant; but as Ceylon follows next in succession, it may possibly refer to Sumatra, though that island appears to have been mentioned already, under the name of SymoloraE. SECTION IX.
"I used to see them," said the lawyer, "when I was in Sumatra, looking after the affairs of some Frenchmen who were buying pearls from the oyster-beds of Arippo.
One P.M.We are entering the Strait of Sunda, which separates Java and Sumatra.
On the other side we have the coast of Sumatra, wooded and broken, with mountains in the background, and green islets tossed out from it upon the ocean, in the foreground; and a sailing ship moving along it in the same direction with ourselves, her sails flapping idly in the calm.
Mr. Marsden relates, that in the island of Sumatra, during the November of 1775, the dry monsoons, or S.E. winds, continued so much longer than usual, that the large rivers became dry; and prodigious quantities of sea-fish, dead and dying, were seen floating for leagues on the sea, and driven on the beach by the tides.
This Iland of Sumatra is a great Iland and deuided and gouerned by many kings, and deuided into many chanels, where through there is passage: upon the headland towardes the West is the kingdom of Assi gouerned by a Moore king: this king is of great force and strength, as he that beside his great kingdom, hath many Foists and Gallies.
In Sumatra, the natives scarcely use anything else.
I have killed two Sherwoods, three Smoks, and one Sumatra.
The Compañía suffered great losses through its erroneous system of operation, and the incapacity of its officials (it paid, for example, $13.50 for a picul of pepper which cost from three to four dollars in Sumatra).
In Sumatra Wallace saw, in the twilight, a lemur run up the trunk of a tree, and then glide obliquely through the air to another trunk, by which he nearly reached the ground.
Same may be Sumatra.
It would therefore be necessary, to supplement the work of such a station by field work in Borneo, Sumatra, Africa, India, South America, and such other regions as the species of organism under consideration happen to inhabit.
A daring outrage having been committed in those seas by the plunder of one of our merchantmen engaged in the pepper trade at a port in Sumatra, and the piratical perpetrators belonging to tribes in such a state of society that the usual course of proceedings between civilized nations could not be pursued, I forthwith dispatched a frigate with orders to require immediate satisfaction for the injury and indemnity to the sufferers.
17, SUMATRA ROAD, WEST HAMPSTEAD, N.W. 8th October, 1885.
"Sumatra is, next to Borneo, the largest island in the Eastern seas.
"Is Sumatra a gold country?" "Why," said Mr. Wilton, smiling, "have you never heard of the gold of Mount Ophir?
Well, that is the name of the highest mountain in Sumatra." GEORGE.
"Then there is gold in Sumatra, and I suppose it is washed down by the rivers.
"I should hope they wash the rice after this process: although, as rice is so dry, they doubtless consider it unnecessary: I find Sumatra is a foggy island, and contains only one important kingdom.viz., Acheen.
"As Charles states, Acheen, with regard to business transactions, is the only place of note in the island of Sumatra.
Parts of it are in the same longitude as the north of Sumatra; and I merely wish to mention some peculiarities connected with the Burmese.
"South-west of Sumatra, in latitude 12° south, longitude 97° east, are the Cocos or Keeling Islands, which are entirely coralline in their formation; very fertile, with a salubrious climate.
"Then the Ophir of Sumatra is not the real Ophir, but only named after the place in Africa, because it was rich in gold?" MR.
During the 7th and 8th of October, we held our course through the Strait of Malacca, which separates Sumatra from the peninsula, and during all this time we never lost sight of land.
To our left lay a number of mountainous islands, which completely intercepted our view of Sumatra.
On the 11th of October we saw the small island of Pulo-Rondo, which appertains to Sumatra.
They inhabit Malacca, Sumatra, Java, and the adjacent islands; Molucca, the Ladrones, New Holland, Van Dieman's Land, New Guinea, New Zealand, and the South Sea Islands.
The Battas of Sumatra, prefer human flesh to all other, and speak with rapture of the soles of the feet and palms of the hands.
Adjacent, and favorably situated to Cockburn Sound, are the Mauritius, Cape of Good Hope, Timer, Java, Sumatra, and the East Indian Presidencies.
In Sumatra, in Turkestan, and in Tunis these military railroads have excited much interest, and have so fully established their value that this paper may confine itself to a short description.
To advise a man unaccustomed to the eyes of multitudes to mount a tribunal without perturbation, to tell him whose life was passed in the shades of contemplation, that he must not be disconcerted or perplexed in receiving and returning the compliments of a splendid assembly, is to advise an inhabitant of Brasil or Sumatra not to shiver at an English winter, or him who has always lived upon a plain to look from a precipice without emotion.
From the Cape of Good Hope to the head of the Persian Gulf, from Cape Comorin to Sumatra, every coast was beset by English, French, Dutch, Danish, Portuguese, Arab, Malay or other local pirates.
On the Sumatra coast, finding the natives unwilling to do business with him, he went ashore with a pistol in his pocket to bring the 'black dogs' to reason.
From their Madagascar settlements the pirates scoured the east coast of Africa, the Indian Ocean as far as Sumatra, the mouth of the Red Sea, where the Mocha ships offered many rich prizes, the Malabar coast, and the Gulf of Oman.
The whole thing had been planned between the two crews before leaving Bombay; their intention being to meet off the coast of Sumatra, and cruise in company.
Bristol, the, taken to Sumatra on a piratical cruise.
He visited the Sandwich Islands, Japan, China, Sumatra, Siam, Burmah, the Himalaya Mountains, India, returning home by way of Europe.
The work has decayed in some places, but they now have churches in Ceylon, Sumatra, Java, Amboyna, and some other of the spice islands, and at the Cape of Good Hope, in Africa.
Sumatra 1000 100 2,100,000 Ditto, and Pagans.
He was coming by steamer from the west, according to report, and was probably on the Boswell, Sumatra to Madagascar, due off Aratat in two or three days.
The beauty of Helen, the warmth of Cleopatra, Salome's notorious skill in the dance, The dusky allure of the belles of Sumatra, The fashion and finish of ladies from France.
Wind in the rigging; an adventurous voyage of Tod Moran on the tramp steamer, Sumatra, New York to North Africa.
R650208. Pepper and pirates: adventures in the Sumatra pepper trade of Salem.
THE BOY EXPLORERS AND THE APE MAN OF SUMATRA, by Warren Hastings Miller.
SEE The boy explorers and the ape man of Sumatra. R69930.
SPERRY, ARMSTRONG. One day with Jambi in Sumatra
Wind in the rigging; an adventurous voyage of Tod Moran on the tramp steamer, Sumatra, New York to North Africa.
YEAGER, FRANCES. Jungle woman; the amazing experiences of Mrs. Frances Yeager, first white woman to live in the Sumatra jungle, by Frances Yeager & Eli Colter.
We first sailed to Achin, in the island of Sumatra, and then to Siam, where we bartered our wares for some arrack and opium, the last of which bore a great price among the Chinese; in a word, we went up to Suskan, making a very great voyage; &, after eight months time, I returned to Bengal, very well satisfied with this adventure, having not only got a sufficient quantity of money, but an insight of getting a great deal more.
Why, Sir, said he, to be short, because time is precious, the matter is this: You know well enough that you was with the ship at Sumatra, when your Captain was murdered by the Malayans, with three of his sailors; and that either you, or some who were on board you, ran away with the ship, and are since turned pirates at sea.
To the right lie the large ships which make the voyage to various European ports, mingled with fine three-masted vessels bound for the East Indies, with names written in golden lettersJava, Sumatra, Borneo, Samarangcarrying the fancy to those distant and savage countries like the echoes of distant voices.
"The savage tribes of Sumatra and Celebes have a like feeling about the knee, which is always carefully covered" (Westermarck, 207).
" C. Bock notes that in Sumatra rice powder is lavishly employed by many of the women, but "not with the object of preserving the complexion or reducing the color, but to prevent perspiration by closing the pores of the skin.
The Malayans of Sumatra have, as Carl Bock tells us (314), a local custom allowing a wife to marry again if her faithless spouse has deserted her for three months:
Carl Bock (275) says of the Malays of Sumatra, that the men are extremely indolent and make the women their beasts of burden (as the lower races do in general).
Among other peoples to whom Westermarck looks for support of his argument are the Fijians, Tongans, and natives of New Britain, Java, and Sumatra.
Marryat, F.: Borneo. Marsden, W.: History of Sumatra. Martin, J.: An Account of the Natives of the Tonga Islands Compiled from the Communications of Mr. William Mariner.
The seuenth of Iuly we saw the point of the land of Sumatra, which is a verie high land descending downewarde with a long end.
We sent our Pinace to the firme land of Sumatra, there to seeke for some reliefe: for that where we lay there dwelt not any man.
Right ouer against Sumatra, on the South side of the Equinoctiall lyeth the Islande of Iaua Maior, or great Iaua, and these two Islandes are deuided by a straight commonly called the straight of Sunda, which lyeth between these two Islands, bearing the name of the principall hauen of Iaua called Sunda:
miles to sea ward within the Isle, between Sumatra and Iaua:
About the nineteenth of Nouember we came within sight of Sumatra, and the 26. of the same moneth 1598.
and sayled to Sumatra, where they tooke in fresh water; for that the water of Bantam first waxeth white, and afterward crawleth full of magots.
Vpon the land of Sumatra we bartered kniues, spoones, looking-glasses, bels, needles and such like, for sundry fruits, to wit, melons, cucumbers, onions, garlike, and pepper though little in quantity, yet exceeding good.
we arriued at Sumatra.
The nineteenth of November, we came within sight of Sumatra.
Moreouer our foure shippes being well and richly laden at Bantam made saile homewarde the eleuenth of Ianuary, and the thirteenth, wee were shot as farre as the Isles of Sumatra.
This beautiful species I have named after Sir Stamford Raffles, to whose scientific ardour and indefatigable exertions in Java and Sumatra, every Naturalist must feel himself indebted.
The agricultural tribes of Java, and many of Sumatra, never commit piracy at all; and the most civilized inhabitants of Celebes are very little addicted to this vice.
Among the most confirmed pirates are the true Malays, inhabiting the small islands about the eastern extremity of the straits of Malacca, and those lying between Sumatra and Borneo, down to Billitin and Cavimattir.
In these last, indeed, they have formed, for the last few years, two permanent establishments; one of these situated on Sumatra, near Indragiri, is called Ritti, and the other a small island on the coast of Linga, is named Salangut.
On the 7th of February, 1831, the ship Friendship, Capt. Endicott, of Salem (Mass.,) was captured by the Malays while lying at Quallah Battoo, on the coast of Sumatra.
" [Dread and seclusion of menstruous women in the Torres Straits Islands, New Guinea, Galela, and Sumatra.]
The Minangkabauers of Sumatra are persuaded that if a woman in her unclean state were to go near a rice-field, the crop would be spoiled.
Madame MELBA'S most perilous experience was on a tour in the Far East, when the liner in which she was travelling was caught by a tidal wave and hurled with enormous velocity towards the rocky coast of Sumatra.
E. Trapobana, or rather Taprobana, is assuredly Ceylon, not Sumatra.E. SECTION II.
BENCOOLEN, a town and a Dutch residency in SW. of Sumatra; exports pepper and camphor.
COCLES, HORATIUS, a Roman who defended a bridge against the army of Porsenna till the bridge was cut down behind him, when he leapt into the river and swam across scatheless amid the darts of the enemy. COCOS ISLANDS, a group of 20 small coral islands about 700 m. SW. of Sumatra. COCYTUS, a dark river which environed Tartarus with bitter and muddy waters.
MALAY ARCHIPELAGO or INDIAN ARCHIPELAGO is that group of many hundred islands stretching from the Malay Peninsula SE. to Australia between the North Pacific and the Indian Ocean, of which Borneo, Sumatra, Java, and Celebes are the largest.
PADANG (15), a town and free port on the W. coast of Sumatra, the largest town on the island, and the Dutch official capital.
RAFFLES, SIR THOMAS STAMFORD, English administrator, born in Jamaica; entered the East India Company's service, and rose in it; became Governor of Java, and wrote a history of it; held afterwards an important post in Sumatra, and formed a settlement at Singapore; returned to England with a rich collection of natural objects and documents, but lost most of them by the ship taking fire (1781-1826).