Observations on the three classes already introduced.--Coincidence of extraordinary circumstances.--Individuals in each of these classes, who seem to have had an education as it were to qualify them for promoting the cause of the abolition; Sharp and Ramsay in the first; Dillwyn in the second; Pemberton and Rush in the third.--These, with their respective classes, acted on motives of their own, and independently of each other; and yet, from circumstances neither foreseen nor known by them, they were in the way of being easily united in 1787.--William Dillwyn, the great medium of connexion between them all.
Meanwhile M. de Conde had assembled the leaders of his party at Mezieres, whence he forwarded a species of manifesto to the Queen-Regent, in which he complained in the name of his faction of "the waste of the public money; of the unworthiness of the individuals in power; of the undue authority assumed by the ministers; of the want of respect displayed towards the Princes of the Blood, the peers, and the officers of the Crown; of the obstacles endured by the Parliaments in the exercise of their jurisdiction; of the ruin of the great nobles; the excessive charges of the law courts; the oppression suffered by the people; the neglect exhibited in assembling the States-General; and the precipitation shown in concluding the marriage of the sovereign before he had attained his majority."
But if the only effectual relief for the distress of the Poor, and the sovereign remedy for the numerous evils to society which arise from the prevalence of mendicity, indolence, poverty, and misery, among the lower classes of society, must be derived from the charitable and voluntary exertions of individuals;-- as the assistance of the Public cannot be expected, unless the most unlimited confidence can be placed, not only in the wisdom of the measures proposed, but also, and MORE ESPECIALLY, in the UPRIGHTNESS, ZEAL, and PERFECT DISINTERESTEDNESS of the persons appointed to carry them into execution; it is evident that the first object to be attended to, in forming a plan of providing for the Poor, is to make such arrangements as will COMMAND THE CONFIDENCE OF THE PUBLIC, and fix it upon the most solid and durable foundation.
We acknowledge that God is our maker,--not merely the originator of the race, but our maker as individuals,--and none the less so because it pleased Him to make us in the way of ordinary generation.
Or, bringing in the word species, which is well defined as "the perennial succession of individuals," commonly of very like individuals,--as a close corporation of individuals perpetuated by generation, instead of election,--and reducing the question to mathematical simplicity of statement: species are lines of individuals coming down from the past and running on to the future,--lines receding, therefore, from our view in either direction.
His intelligence, evident candor, and grateful remembrance of those kindnesses, which in a land of Slavery, made his cup of suffering less bitter; the perfect accordance of his statements, (made at different times, and to different individuals),B one with another, as well as those statements themselves, all afford strong confirmation of the truth and accuracy of his story.
As nothing tends more powerfully to encourage idleness and immorality among the Poor, and consequently to perpetuate all the evils to society which arise from the prevalence of poverty and mendicity, than injudicious distributions of alms; individuals must be very cautious in bestowing their private charities, and in forming schemes for giving assistance to the distressed; otherwise they will most certainly do more harm than good.-- The evil tendency of giving alms indiscriminately to beggars is universally acknowledged; but it is not, I believe, so generally known how much harm is done by what are called the PRIVATE CHARITIES of individuals.--Far be it from me to wish to discourage private charities; I am only anxious that they should be better applied.
This trial may be advantageously applied in fortified places, hospitals, houses of correction, and, in general, in all places where cellars or subterraneous places occur, being neither too cold nor too moist; and where it is important to procure a cheap, but abundant nourishment for many individuals.--From the French.
If he had known all the stories in the old books, he would have found that some have swooned and become as dead men at the smell of a rose,--that a stout soldier has been known to turn and run at the sight or smell of rue,--that cassia and even olive-oil have produced deadly faintings in certain individuals,--in short, that almost everything has seemed to be a poison to somebody.
The point to be established at all hazards is, that the French, Spaniards, Portuguese, Italians, Belgians, and even the English and Greeks, form but one great family, of one hundred and fifteen million individuals,--the Gallo-Roman.
And, if you should ask, "where in the free States are the increasing numbers of men and women, who believe, that the religion of the unresisting 'Lamb of God' forbids recourse to such weapons, in all circumstances, either by nations or individuals?"--the answer is, "to a man, to a woman, in the ranks of the abolitionists."
Lee tries to account for it,--troops confused by contradictory intelligence, by disobedience of orders, by the meddling and blundering of individuals,--vague excuses all, the plain truth being that they had given way to a panic.
Twenty-four thousand individuals,--we have its title-page as authority,--more or less lineal descendants of Solomon, have become the fortunate possessors of this plethoric guide to earthly immortality.
CHAPTER V. Third class of forerunners and coadjutors, up to 1787, consists of the Quakers and others in America.--Yearly meeting for Pennsylvania and the Jerseys takes up the subject in 1696; and continue it till 1787.--Other five yearly meetings take similar measures.--Quakers, as individuals, also become labourers; William Burling and others.--Individuals of other religious denominations take up the cause also; Judge Sewell and others.--Union of the Quakers with others in a society for Pennsylvania, in 1774; James Pemberton; Dr. Rush.--Similar union of the Quakers with others for New York and other provinces.
--Second class of forerunners and coadjutors, up to May 1787, consists of the Quakers in England.--Of George Fox and others.--Of the body of the Quakers assembled at the yearly meeting in 1727; and at various other times.--Quakers, as a body, petition Parliament; and circulate books on the subject.--Individuals among them become labourers and associate in behalf of the Africans; Dilwyn, Harrison, and others.--This the first association ever formed in England for the purpose.